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Players do not wear any padding or protection except for a mouthguard. The traditional uniform consists of a long sleeve
cotton shirt with a collar. Shorts are usually cotton and rise to about mid-thigh. Knee-length socks with turnover tops are
worn along with boots similar to soccer cleats. There are strict rules governing the kinds of cleats used. An optional piece
of equipment is the scrum cap worn by some forwards which is made from leather or cloth and worn as protection for the
ears. A frequently used substitute is electrical tape.  Any other item than what is listed is usually not allowed in play with
the inclusion of jewelry. The ball comes in many sizes. It is shaped like an American football, but is larger. The standard
length is about 285 mm (11 inches) and the standard center circumfrence is about 630 mm (24 inches).